01. Name and etymology of the rose
03. The cultivation of the rose
04. Aromatic profile of the rose
NAME AND ETYMOLOGY OF THE ROSE
The rose takes its name from the Latin "rosa" which literally means "red". There are more than 100 different species of roses, each with its own characteristics and shades of color. In perfumery, two varieties are mainly used for their fragrant power:
- The Damask rose, also known as the Bulgarian rose. Originally from the Middle East, it delivers rose essential oil by distillation of its petals.
- The rose of May, also called Centifolia rose. It is The jewel of the city of Grasse. Harvested between May and early June, it blooms only once a year, which makes it an extremely expensive ingredient. Treated by solvent extraction, it produces the concrete and the absolute of rose with heavier fragrant materials.
It is one of the most used raw materials in the history of perfume and has been used for centuries for its unique and bewitching scent. The petals of the rose are distilled to obtain a rose extract that can be used in the composition of perfumes. Perfumers also use the essential oil extracted from the petals to create luxurious floral fragrances. Rose is often combined with the scent notes of jasmine, violet and musk to create a sophisticated and elegant fragrance. In short, the rose is one of the most precious ingredients in perfumery and its timeless scent continues to inspire fragrance designers around the world.
HISTORY OF THE ROSE
The rose has a long history in perfumery dating back to ancient times. The Egyptians used rose oils for religious ceremonies and beauty rituals. Later, the Romans introduced the cultivation of the rose to Europe, where it quickly became a prized flower for gardens and perfumes. In the Middle Ages, rose-based perfumes were popular with European nobility and were considered a symbol of prestige and wealth. Today, the rose remains an ingredient of choice for high-end perfumes and is often associated with luxury brands.
The Damask rose
Contemporary archaeology has highlighted two distinct pockets of rose culture: China and Persia, where Avicenna invents the still in order to extract the first rose essential oil. With the expansion of the kingdom of Persia, the rose culture settled in the region of Damascus from which it took the name.
In the Middle Ages, the crusaders brought back the Damascus rose on their return. Among them is the Chevalier Robert de Brie who introduced this plant around 1254 in the town of Provins. This is how the city of Provins came to be considered the capital of the French rose and participated in the popularization of the rose in the Middle Ages. Indeed, at that time, rose-based perfumes were popular with the European nobility and were considered a symbol of prestige and wealth.
Under the influence of the Ottoman Empire, the Damascus rose culture moved to the Kazanlik region of Bulgaria in the 17th century. Then at the end of the 19th century, the rose culture and its know-how was repatriated to the Turkish regions of Burdur and Isparta.
Origin of the rose
The rose is native to Western Asia and Eastern Europe, where it has been growing for over 2,000 years. It became a popular plant for garden decoration due to its colorful and fragrant flowers. Over time, growers have developed many different species of roses, some of which have been grown specifically for their fragrance. The flower has also become a romantic symbol, often given in bouquets or used to create floral arrangements for weddings and special occasions.
How roses are grown and selected
Growing roses for perfumery is a meticulous process that requires careful attention and patience. Roses for perfume production are grown in specific regions of the world where the geological and climatic conditions are optimal for their growth, such as in Grasse, in the south of France, or in Central Europe (in Bulgaria or Turkey). The roses are then hand-picked at the time of flowering to ensure optimal quality and intensity of fragrance.
Rose producing regions
The main regions producing roses for perfumery are Turkey, Bulgaria, France, Morocco and India. Turkey is known for producing high quality roses, especially the Isparta rose. Bulgaria is also known for its Damascena rose, which is used in the production of rose essential oil, a key ingredient in many perfumes. France also produces quality roses for perfumery, including the May rose, which is used in the production of sweet and romantic floral fragrances. Morocco is another major producer of roses for perfumery, particularly the Damascena and Centifolia roses. These roses are often used in the production of rich and exotic oriental fragrances. Finally, India also produces high quality roses for perfumery, including the Grasse rose, which is used in the production of sophisticated and elegant floral fragrances. The rose remains one of the most popular ingredients in perfumery and its cultivation continues to expand worldwide. The regions producing roses for perfumery are proud of their know-how and expertise, and their contribution to the perfumery industry is invaluable.
THE CULTIVATION OF THE ROSE
The planting and cultivation of roses for perfumery is also beneficial for local populations, as it provides employment and stimulates the local economy. The planting of roses for perfumery is a very important part of the process, as it requires constant care and attention to detail to produce high quality flowers. In addition, the production of roses for perfumery is often done in a sustainable manner, using environmentally friendly farming practices and preserving local biodiversity.
Treatment and processing of the rose
Developing roses for perfumery is a complex and painstaking process that begins with the selection of the most suitable varieties. Roses used in perfumery must be both fragrant and resistant, which requires a rigorous selection process. Once roses are picked, perfumers use various extraction methods to obtain their essential oil.
The transformation of the rose into a perfumery ingredient requires a meticulous and sophisticated process. The petals are harvested by hand early in the morning, as this is when their fragrance is most concentrated. The petals are then quickly transported to the processing plant for treatment before their fragrance evaporates. The most common method of processing is steam distillation, which involves heating the petals in water and then collecting the steam that escapes. This vapor is then cooled and condensed into a pure, concentrated essential oil. Other processing methods include solvent extraction and infusion, or CO2 extraction, but steam distillation is considered the purest and gentlest method of extracting rose oil.
AROMATIC PROFILE OF THE ROSE
The rose is a flower with a unique and enchanting fragrance. Its aromatic profile is both sweet and floral, with a subtle touch of spicy or woody notes. Rose-based fragrances are often associated with romance and femininity, but they can also be used to create men's or unisex fragrances by combining them with other spicier or woodier ingredients. The top notes of rose-based fragrances are often fresh and light, with hints of bergamot or lemon to add a touch of acidity. Heart notes are more floral and intense, with touches of jasmine, tuberose or lily of the valley to add depth. The base notes are more woody or spicy, with touches of sandalwood, pepper or patchouli to add warmth and complexity.
The manufacturing steps
The production of a rose-based perfume involves several important steps. First, the petals are distilled or extracted to obtain rose essential oil. This essential oil is then blended with other oils, such as bergamot or jasmine oil, to create a complex and balanced fragrance. Once the oil mixture is ready, it is mixed with alcohol to create a fragrance solution. This solution is then aged for several weeks to allow the different notes to blend and develop fully. Finally, the perfume is packaged in bottles and labeled.
USE OF ROSE
Rose is a versatile ingredient that can be used in a variety of fragrances, ranging from sweet and feminine to spicy and woody. However, its various uses are not limited to perfumery. In fact, this flower is also used in cosmetics and aromatherapy, where it is used to help relieve stress and anxiety. Finally, the rose can be used in derivative products such as body care, home fragrances or candles.
Benefits and virtues of the rose
In addition to its use in perfumery, the rose also offers many health and beauty benefits. Rose petals are often used in skincare products for their moisturizing and soothing properties, as well as for their ability to reduce the appearance of wrinkles and blemishes. Rose water, obtained by distilling rose petals, is also used to soothe irritated skin and balance the skin's ph. In addition, rose is known for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, making it a popular choice for relieving menstrual pain and headaches. All the antioxidant properties of rose can also help prevent cardiovascular disease and boost the immune system.
Olfactory agreements with the rose
The rose is a flower that has an extremely rich and varied olfactory accord in perfumery. The rose scent can be used in different olfactory accords to create oriental, floral or chypre fragrances, which are popular with consumers around the world.
FAMOUS ROSE PERFUMES
For their sophistication and elegance, pink floral fragrances are present in iconic creations by major brands such as Chanel, Dior, Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent in the form of eau de parfum or eau de toilette.
- A powdered rose: The iconic Chanel N°5 (1921), for example, uses the essence of pink to create a floral and powdered eau de parfum and eau de toilette for women, which has become a timeless classic. The 1990s/2000s saw the return of the powdered rose with two key fragrances: Trésor de Lancôme (1990) and Flower de Kenzo (2000).
- Rose & jasmine: At Patou, the perfume Joy (1929), is launched one year after the financial crisis of 1930 in order to restore the joie de vivre. At the time, it was labeled the most expensive perfume in the world thanks to its combination of Grasse jasmine and May rose.
- A decade later, the Chloé Eau de Parfum (2008) invites us to a walk in a rose garden supported by comfortable musks, for a smooth wake. In contrast, Frédérique Malle works on the rose in Portrait of a Lady (2010), in its spicy and amber version, a singular fragrance where the Turkish rose is played in overdose and magnified by a combination of patchouli and hot spices (cinnamon, cloves, etc.).
- A strong ingredient in the "Guerlinade", rose is present in many fragrances from the Guerlain house, including the iconic Nahéma. This oriental fragrance offers an overdose of honeyed rose, which allows to reconcile the two figures of the eternal feminine: tenderness and passion. The rose will then be revisited at Guerlain in a more fruity form, with the Petite Robe Noire (2012).
- The same year, we see the appearance of Miss Dior’s Eau de Parfum and Eau de Toilette for women, which uses the olfactory accord of the rose to create a fresh floral fragrance that evokes romanticism and femininity.
BON PARFUMEUR ROSE FRAGRANCES
In our workshop, you will find a variety of eau de parfum à la rose, which use bewitching essences and absolutes.
- For a fresh and elegant rose: we recommend the 101 eau de parfum, which uses rose oil to create a fresh and floral eau de parfum. A creation that is readily associated with femininity and romance.
- For a spicy rose: 106 combines the Damascena rose with an intense vanilla accord for a sensual and intoxicating fragrance.
- For a fruity rose: 203 and its delicious red fruit accents will charm you, with a floral sweetness of neroli and jasmine.
- For a bubble of softness with rose accents: opt for the 802 eau de parfum with its pretty floral bouquet composed of freesia and peony. This very airy fragrance also contains musks that prolong this bubble of sweetness.
Ultimately, rose is a refined ingredient that is widely used in perfumery. Associated with femininity and love, it can evoke precious emotions and memories. Rose perfumes continue to be appreciated for their refined, sophisticated and timeless aroma, which is now being reinvented in a unisex version.