What does the word mandarin mean?
The term "mandarin" comes from the French name for this fruit, which in turn derives from the Portuguese word "mandarim". This word refers to the mandarins, the high officials of ancient China, who were traditionally associated with the cultivation of this fruit. The etymology of "mandarin" goes back to the Sanskrit "mantrin", meaning "adviser" or "minister". The origin of the term is also linked to the use of mandarins as gifts and marks of respect for Chinese dignitaries.Thus, the name "mandarin" refers to the historical relationship between this fruit and Chinese mandarins, underlining its cultural importance and symbolic status.
In the beginning…
The history of the mandarin goes back several millennia in Asia. Native to China and Southeast Asia, the mandarin is one of the oldest fruits cultivated by man. It is often associated with legends and important symbolism in Chinese culture.The mandarin was introduced to Europe in the 19th century by explorers and traders who were fascinated by its delicious taste and ease of peeling. It quickly became popular in Mediterranean countries and gained international renown.
Today, mandarins are grown in many parts of the world, including Spain, Italy, Morocco and the United States. It is appreciated for its sweet and tangy flavor, as well as for its high vitamin and antioxidant content.Over the centuries, the mandarin has become a symbol of good fortune, prosperity and celebration, often associated with Chinese New Year festivities. It is also used in a variety of industries, from perfumery to cooking, thanks to its vibrant, refreshing aroma.
The origin of the mandarin dates back to ancient China, where it has been cultivated for thousands of years. It is a cross between two citrus species: the wild mandarin (Citrus reticulata) and the papeda (Citrus maxima). The mandarin originated in the subtropical regions of China, where it was considered a precious and highly prized fruit.
Mandarins are grown mainly in subtropical and Mediterranean climates. Mandarins are generally grown from seed or grafted onto suitable rootstocks. It requires well-drained, fertile soil and sunny exposure for optimum growth. Mandarin trees are often pruned to improve air circulation and facilitate harvesting. Regular irrigation is essential, especially during periods of active growth and fruit development.
Planting mandarins requires a few key steps. First, it's important to select a suitable site with well-drained soil rich in organic matter. Mandarin seedlings are generally sourced from specialized nurseries and planted in spring or autumn, taking care to prepare sufficiently wide and deep planting holes.Once planted, mandarin trees should be watered regularly, especially during dry spells. Mulching around the base of the trees can help retain soil moisture. Trees should also be pruned to promote healthy growth and adequate air circulation. Planting mandarins can vary according to region and variety. Particular attention must be paid to water requirements, diseases and pests specific to each region.
The development of mandarins follows a process that includes various stages. After planting, the mandarin tree goes through a vegetative growth phase, during which it develops branches, leaves and roots. During this period, it's important to provide appropriate care such as regular irrigation, fertilization and protection against pests and diseases.
Once the tree is sufficiently mature, it enters the flowering phase, when fragrant white flowers appear. These flowers are pollinated by bees or other insects, and if pollination is successful, they develop into fruit.Mandarin fruits then go through a development phase, gradually increasing in size and weight. The color of the skin changes from green to yellow or orange, and the fruit acquires its characteristic sweet flavor. Mandarins are harvested by hand, using scissors or secateurs to cut the ripe fruit from the tree. Mandarins are harvested by carefully grasping them and detaching them from the branch, while preserving the stem. It's important to handle the fruit gently to avoid damaging the delicate skin.
Harvesting is generally carried out when the mandarins have reached full maturity, indicated by their bright color and sweet flavor.
What do you know about mandarins in perfumery?
The process of processing and transforming mandarins into perfumes involves extracting the essential oils present in the fruit's peel. The peels are generally cold-pressed to extract the precious aromatic essences. These essential oils are then used as key ingredients in the creation of fragrances.
Mandarin essences add a fruity, fresh and sparkling note to perfume compositions. They are often used to add a touch of energy and vivacity to fragrances, creating a dynamic, sparkling ambience. Perfumers can also play with different extraction and distillation techniques to obtain variations in the nuances of mandarin essences, enabling them to integrate them harmoniously into unique olfactory accords.
Mandarin's olfactory profile is characterized by vibrant freshness and fruity sweetness. Its fragrance is cheerful, sparkling and reminiscent of the juicy brightness of citrus. The dominant notes are those of freshly peeled orange peel, with tangy citrus accents. Mandarin has an energizing, luminous feel, evoking memories of summer and vitality. Its sunny, refreshing scent adds a touch of joy and lightness to many fragrance compositions, making it a prized ingredient in the perfume industry.
The steps involved in making a perfume with mandarin in perfumery include extracting the essential oils from the rind of the fruit, usually by cold pressing, to obtain the precious aromatic essences. These essential oils are then subjected to purification processes to remove impurities. Mandarin essences are then used as ingredients in the creation of perfumes, where they can be combined with other raw materials to form harmonious olfactory accords. Perfumers experiment and adjust the quantities and combinations of ingredients to create fragrances that capture mandarin's characteristic freshness and sweetness.
Mandarin is widely used in perfumery to bring a fresh, fruity and sparkling note to olfactory compositions. Its essential oil is extracted from the fruit's peel and used as a key ingredient in many perfumes. Mandarin adds a touch of energy and vitality, creating a joyful, sparkling ambience. Its sunny, luminous fragrance is often associated with summery compositions, but can also be used to add a fruity, dynamic note to more complex perfumes.
In perfumery, mandarin harmonizes with several olfactory accords to create balanced, appealing compositions. Some of the accords commonly associated with mandarin include :
• Citrus notes: Mandarin blends harmoniously with other citrus fruits such as lemon, orange and grapefruit, creating refreshing, energizing accords.
• Floral notes: It can be combined with light, delicate floral notes such as orange blossom, rose or jasmine, to bring a subtle sweetness to the composition.
• Woody notes: Mandarin can be paired with woody notes such as cedar, sandalwood or vetiver, adding warm depth to the fragrance.
• Spices: It can be combined with spices such as cinnamon, ginger or pepper, to create spicy, energetic accords.
• Gourmand notes: Mandarin can also be combined with gourmand notes such as vanilla, caramel or chocolate, creating fruity, gourmand accords.
Interesting fact!The mandarin orange is renowned for its many benefits and virtues. It is rich in vitamin C, which boosts the immune system and promotes overall health. It's also a source of antioxidants, which help protect cells against damage caused by free radicals. Mandarin is beneficial for digestion, as it is mild and promotes the secretion of digestive enzymes. What's more, its fresh, stimulating fragrance can help relieve stress and promote a feeling of well-being.
Popular mandarin perfumes...
Here are a few famous mandarin eaux de parfums:
• Sundazed by Byredo: Sundazed is a fragrance created by Swedish brand Byredo. Launched in 2019, this fragrance is part of the "Sundazed" collection, which is inspired by the sunny pleasures of summer. The perfumer behind this composition is Jérôme Epinette. Sundazed features mandarin as one of its main notes.
Sundazed is described as sunny, luminous and vibrant. In addition to mandarin, it incorporates other fruity and floral notes, such as neroli and jasmine. These notes blend with accents of honey, sweet cotton and musk, creating a soft, joyful and bewitching fragrance. Sundazed evokes a summery mood, reminiscent of sunny afternoons spent basking in the warm rays of the sun.
• Infusion Mandarine by Prada: Infusion Mandarine is a fragrance offered by Italian fashion house Prada. Released in 2015, it is one of the declinations in the "Les Infusions de Prada" collection, which explores the refined and elegant facets of different raw materials. Perfumer Daniela Andrier is behind this creation.
Infusion Mandarine takes a subtle, sophisticated approach to the mandarin orange. The fragrance is both fresh and delicate, moving away from an overly sweet or tart approach to mandarin. In addition to mandarin, the fragrance features notes of neroli, orange blossom and cedarwood. The result is an elegant composition, ideal for lovers of more refined, discreet citrus.
• Aqua Vitae Cologne Forte by Kurkdjian: Aqua Vitae Cologne Forte is a fragrance created by Francis Kurkdjian, a famous French perfumer known for his bold, high-quality creations. The fragrance is part of the designer's Aqua Vitae collection, which celebrates the contrasts between freshness and warmth.
In Aqua Vitae Cologne Forte, mandarin orange is used to bring a lively, sparkling note from the very first moments of the fragrance. It is combined with notes of bergamot, lemon, blackcurrant and other citrus fruits, offering a fresh, sunny opening. However, this fragrance is not limited to citrus, as it evolves into a spicy heart with notes of cinnamon and rose, as well as a warmer base with touches of amber and sandalwood.
• Mandarine Basilic by Guerlain is part of the "Aqua Allegoria" collection launched in 2007. Created by perfumer Thierry Wasser, it features mandarin and basil for a stimulating olfactory experience. Top notes are dominated by mandarin, providing a bright, sparkling opening, while basil adds a green, aromatic dimension. Light floral notes and musky amber accents complete the composition. It's a fresh, elegant fragrance, ideal for hot summer days.
• In Jo Malone London's eau de Cologne pour homme Lime Basil & Mandarin, although mandarin is often present as a top note in many fragrances, in this creation by Jo Malone London, it also appears as a base note. This fragrance offers a refreshingly dynamic blend of juicy mandarin, aromatic basil and sparkling lime. Mandarin brings a lingering fruity sweetness that blends with the other notes to create a luminous, energizing base.
• Mandarine Glaciale eau de toilette by Atelier Cologne is a fragrance that captures the refreshing, sparkling essence of mandarin. Top notes are dominated by Italian mandarin, offering an explosion of fruity freshness. Then, light floral heart notes mingle with ginger accords to add a spicy, invigorating dimension.
• Mandarine by L'Artisan Parfumeur is a vibrant and refreshing citrus fragrance that captures the essence of mandarin oranges. The perfume opens with a burst of juicy and zesty mandarin notes, creating an uplifting and energizing top accord. As the fragrance develops, the heart reveals delicate and aromatic florals and ginger notes that complement the citrus character. The base notes add a touch of warmth and depth with hints of musk and wood. Mandarine is a joyful and invigorating scent, perfect for brightening up any day with its lively and cheerful character.
Mandarin x Bon Parfumeur
• Eau de cologne 004 has a gin and tonic effect thanks to juniper berry. It's accompanied by a veritable citrus cocktail: lemon, bergamot and mandarin echo each other in vitality. Then a hint of nutmeg stirs the heart. At the base, patchouli and tonka bean add warmth and hold. A Cologne to delight the mixologist in you!
• YMC eau de parfum is an androgynous composition, sometimes floral, sometimes spicy! Tangerine and geranium give us that imaginary rose scent. A trio of spicy tones adds a twist to the creation: saffron, cinnamon and cardamom. Creamy sandalwood warms and envelops this spicy rose. Seduced?